Service Brakes

19VAC30-70-80. Service brakes.
A. The inspector, as a minimum, must drive all vehicles into the inspection lane and test
both service and parking brakes.
B. A minimum of two wheels or two wheels and drums, one front and one rear, must be
removed from each passenger and multipurpose vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of
10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) or less at the time of inspection, except
those listed in subdivisions 1, 2, and 3 of this subsection. Two front wheels or two front wheels
and drums must be removed from vehicles listed in subdivision 3 of this subsection.

  • 1. Motorcycles.
  • 2. A new model vehicle is defined as a vehicle that has not been titled or leased and is
    less than one year old, measured from October 1 as of each year; if such motor vehicle
    does not have a model year, such measurement shall be made from the date of
    manufacture.
  • 3. Trucks with floating axles that require seal replacement upon removal of rear wheels.
    The inspection receipt (approval and rejection) shall be marked to reflect which wheels
    were pulled. Warning: Lug nuts must be torqued to the manufacturer’s specifications to prevent
    damage to disc rotors. The use of an impact wrench may exceed the manufacturer’s
    specifications and damage disc rotors.

C. If any braking problem is detected, the inspector may test drive or require a test drive of
the vehicle.
D. Inspect for and reject if:

  • 1. Vehicle is not equipped with brakes or any brake has been disconnected, rendered
    inoperative, or improperly installed. Trailers having an actual gross weight of less than
    3,000 pounds are not required to be equipped with brakes; however, if brakes are
    installed, these vehicles must be inspected.
    Brake System Failure Indicator Lamp
  • 2. Passenger vehicles manufactured after January 1, 1968, are not equipped with a red
    brake failure warning lamp or warning lamp does not light with parking brake applied
    when ignition key is turned to the start position, except for anti-lock system. The red
    brake failure warning lamp should light when the ignition key is turned to the start
    position; on some imports it may be checked when the emergency brake is applied or
    other factory installed test button. (DO NOT reject if only the amber ABS/anti-lock brake
    lamp is on.) With the engine running and parking brake released, the red brake failure
    warning lamp should go off, except for vehicles equipped with anti-lock system. If so,
    apply service brake for 10 seconds and if the red brake failure warning lamp lights again
    the system is defective. Also, if the warning lamp light does not come on when there is a
    leak or the warning lamp light is not functioning properly, the system is defective and
    shall be rejected. NOTE: This paragraph does not apply to vehicles registered as street

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  • rods nor does it imply that the red brake failure warning lamp needs to light when the
    emergency brake is set. There are many vehicles that are not factory equipped with an
    emergency brake indicator light.
    Brake Linings and Disc Pads
  • 3. Riveted linings or disc pads are worn to less than 2/32 of an inch over the rivet
    head(s).
  • 4. Bonded or molded linings or disc pads are worn to less than 2/32 of an inch in
    thickness.
  • 5. Wire in wire-backed lining is visible in friction surface.
  • 6. Snap-on brake linings are loose.
  • 7. Any lining is broken or cracked so that the lining or parts of the lining are not firmly
    attached to the shoe or has cracks on the friction surface extending to the open edge.
  • 8. Grease or other contamination is present on the linings, drums, or rotors.
  • 9. Rivets in riveted linings are loose or missing.
  • 10. Any lining or pad is misaligned or does not make full contact with the drum or rotor.
    Brake Drums and Discs
  • 11. Brake drums or brake discs (rotors) are worn or scored to the extent that their
    remachining would result in a failure to meet manufacturer’s specifications. Use the
    specification stamped on the rotor or drum if available.
    NOTE: A number of vehicles on the market are equipped with a lock nut to hold the rear
    brake drum in place. Manufacturers recommend replacement of these lock nuts after
    each removal to prevent failure of the component. If the customer is advised up front,
    then the wholesale cost of the replacement nut may be charged to the customer.
    NOTE: The proper method to remove the rear brake assembly on the 2000 Ford Focus
    is to remove the four bolts from the opposite side of the assembly. Removal otherwise
    may damage the outside grease cap and incur a cost to replace.
  • 12. Brake drums or discs have any external crack or cracks more than one half the width
    of the friction surface of the drum or disc. NOTE: Do not confuse short hairline heat
    cracks with flexural cracks.
    Mechanical Linkage
  • 13. Cables are frayed or frozen.
  • 14. Mechanical parts missing, broken, badly worn, or misaligned.

E. Hydraulic.
NOTE: Some motor vehicles, beginning with 1976 models, have a hydraulic power system
that serves both the power-assisted brakes and power-assisted steering system. Some
vehicles, beginning with 1985 models, have an integrated hydraulic actuation and anti-lock
brake unit using only brake fluid.

  • 1. Brake hydraulic system. Inspector should check the brake hydraulic system in the
    following manner: test vehicle in a standing position; apply moderate pressure to the
    brake pedal for 10 seconds. Brake pedal height must be maintained. On vehicles
    equipped with power-assisted systems; the engine should be running.

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  • 2. Hydraulic system operation. Stop engine, then depress brake pedal several times to
    eliminate all pressure. Depress pedal with a light foot-force (30 pounds). While
    maintaining this force on the pedal, start engine and observe if pedal moves slightly
    when engine starts.
    Reject vehicle if pedal does not move slightly as engine is started while force is on
    brake pedal.
    page 38 picture
  • 3. Condition of hydraulic booster power brake system. Inspect system for fluid level and
    leaks.
    Reject vehicle if there is insufficient fluid in the reservoir; if there are broken, kinked
    or restricted fluid lines or hoses; if there is any leakage of fluid at the pump, steering
    gear or brake booster, or any of the lines or hoses in the system; or if belts are
    frayed, cracked or excessively worn.
  • 4. Integrated hydraulic booster/anti-lock system operation. With the ignition key in the off
    position, depress brake pedal a minimum of 25 times to deplete all residual stored
    pressure in the accumulator. Depress pedal with a light foot-force (25 pounds). Place
    ignition key in the on position and allow 60 seconds for the brake warning light to go out
    and the electric pump to shut off.
    Reject vehicle if the brake pedal does not move down slightly as the pump builds
    pressure or if the brake and anti-lock warning lights remain on longer than 60
    seconds.
    NOTE: The inspection of the ABS light is only for an integrated system that is an
    earlier system. The newer system that has the nonintegrated systems does not need
    to be checked. If the ABS system malfunctions on the newer system, the brake
    systems are still functional.

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  • Page 39 picture 1
  • 5. Condition of integrated hydraulic booster/anti-lock system with electronic pump. With
    the system fully charged, inspect system for fluid level and leaks.
    Reject vehicle if there is insufficient fluid in the reservoir; if there are broken, kinked
    or restricted fluid lines or hoses; or if there is any leakage of fluid at the pump or
    brake booster, or any of the lines or hoses in the system.
  • 6. Vacuum system operation. Stop engine then depress brake pedal several times to
    eliminate all vacuum in the system. Depress pedal with a light foot-force (25 pounds).
    While maintaining this force on the pedal, start engine and observe if pedal moves down
    slightly when engine starts.
    Reject vehicle if pedal does not move down slightly as engine is started while force is
    on the brake pedal. In full vacuum-equipped vehicles, there is insufficient vacuum
    reserve for one full service brake application after engine is stopped.
    Page 39 picture 2
  • 7. Condition of vacuum booster power brake system. Reject vehicle if there are
    collapsed, cracked, broken, badly chafed or improperly supported hoses and tubes,
    loose or broken hose clamps.

F. Inspect for and reject if:
G9-neral Specifications – Hydraulic Brakes

  • 1. There is any leakage in the master cylinder, wheel cylinders, or brake calipers. When
    checking for leakage in rear wheel cylinders, do not disturb the dust boot.
    NOTE: Do not reject for the common dust ball formed on wheel cylinders or for wetness
    that may have spread to the backing plate unless it has contaminated the linings or
    drums as specified in subdivision D 8 of this section. Consumers should be advised of
    this wear so that they will be aware that repair may be needed before their next

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  • inspection. This may not warrant an immediate repair considering the dual valve master
    cylinder.
  • 2. Fluid level in master cylinder is below the proper level for the particular vehicle.
  • 3. There is any evidence of a caliper sticking or binding.
    Electric Brake System
  • 4. Trailers show an amperage value more than 20% above or 30% below the brake
    manufacturer’s maximum current rating for each brake.
  • 5. Amp meter shows no reading or indicator is not steady on application and release of
    brake controller.
  • 6. Any terminal connections are loose or dirty; wires are broken, frayed, or unsupported;
    any single conductor nonstranded wire or wires below the size recommended by the
    brake manufacturers are installed.
  • 7. Electrical trailer brakes do not apply automatically when the breakaway safety switch
    is operated.
    General Specifications
  • 8. There is any leakage in any hydraulic, air, or vacuum lines; hoses have any cracks,
    crimps, restrictions, or are abraded exposing fabric; tubing or connections leak, are
    crimped, restricted, cracked or broken; any valves leak or are inoperative.
    Reject the vehicle if the brake hoses or tubing are stretched or extended and do not
    allow for suspension movement.
    Brake tubing and hoses must:

    • a. Be long and flexible enough to accommodate without damage all normal motions
      of the parts to which it is attached;
    • b. Be secured against chaffing, kinking, or other mechanical damage; and
    • c. Be installed in a manner that prevents it from contacting the vehicle’s exhaust
      system or any other source of high temperatures.
  • 9. Brakes are not equalized so as to stop the vehicle on a straight line.
  • 10. There is less than 1/5 reserve in actuator travel of the service brake when fully
    applied on all hydraulic, mechanical, or power-assisted hydraulic braking systems.
  • 11. When tested on dry, hard, approximately level road free from loose material, at a
    speed of 20 miles per hour without leaving a 12-foot wide lane, results in excess of the
    following distances are obtained: (When in doubt about a vehicle’s stopping ability, the
    inspector shall conduct a road test.)

    • a. Any motor vehicle (except motorcycles, trucks, and tractor-trucks with semitrailers
      attached) four wheel brakes – 25 feet.
    • b. Any motor vehicle (except motorcycles, trucks, and tractor-trucks with semitrailers
      attached) two wheel brakes – 45 feet.
    • c. All combinations of vehicles – 40 feet.

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